Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates include deferred tax asset valuation allowances, valuing options and warrants using the Binomial Lattice and Black-Scholes models, intangible asset valuations and useful lives, depreciation and uncollectible accounts and reserves. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of December 31, 2017. The Company elected a practical expedient to aggregate the effect of all contract modifications that occurred before the adoption date, which did not have a material impact to our consolidated financial statements. Results for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 are presented under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606 (“ASC 606”). Prior period amounts were not revised and continue to be reported in accordance with ASC Topic 605 (“ASC 605”), the accounting standard then in effect.
Upon adoption, the Company recorded a decrease to opening stockholders’ equity of $1,042,000 with a corresponding increase of $1,042,000 in deferred revenue. Additional franchise income of $83,000 was recognized during the year-ended December 31, 2018 under ASC 606, compared to what would have been recognized under ASC 605.
Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, the Company’s initial franchise fees were recorded as deferred revenue when received and proportionate amounts were recognized as revenue when certain milestones such as completion of employee training, lease signing, and store opening were achieved. With the adoption of ASC 606, such initial franchise fees are deferred and recognized over the franchise license term as discussed further below.
The Company generates revenues from the following sources: (i) restaurant sales; (ii) management fee income; (iii) gaming income; and (iv) franchise revenues, consisting of royalties based on a percentage of sales reported by franchise restaurants and initial signing fees.
Restaurant Sales, Net
The Company records revenue from restaurant sales at the time of sale, net of discounts, coupons, employee meals, and complimentary meals and gift cards. Sales tax and value added tax (“VAT”) collected from customers is excluded from restaurant sales and the obligation is included in taxes payable until the taxes are remitted to the appropriate taxing authorities.
Management Fee Income
The Company receives management fee revenue from certain non-affiliated companies, including from managing its investment in Hooters of America which are generally earned and recognized over the performance period.
The Company receives revenue from operating a gaming facility adjacent to its Hooters restaurant in Jantzen Beach, Oregon. Revenue from gaming is recognized as earned from gaming activities, net of payouts to customers, taxes and government fees. These fees are recognized as they are earned based on the terms of the agreements.
The Company grants franchises to operators in exchange for initial franchise license fees and continuing royalty payments. The license granted for each restaurant or area is considered a performance obligation. All other obligations (such as providing assistance during the opening of a restaurant) are combined with the license and were determined to be a single performance obligation. Accordingly, the total transaction price (comprised of the restaurant opening and territory fees) is allocated to each restaurant expected to be opened by the licensee under the contract. There are significant judgments regarding the estimated total transaction price, including the number of stores expected to be opened. We recognize the fee allocated to each restaurant as revenue on a straight-line basis over the restaurant’s license term, which generally begins upon the signing of the contract for area development agreements and upon the signing of a store lease for franchise agreements. The payments for these upfront fees are generally received upon contract execution. Continuing fees, which are based upon a percentage of franchisee revenues and are not subject to any constraints, are recognized on the accrual basis as those sales occur. The payments for these continuing fees are generally made on a weekly basis.
Deferred revenue consists of contract liabilities resulting from initial and renewal franchise license fees paid by franchisees, which are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the underlying franchise agreement, as well as upfront development fees paid by franchisees, which are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the underlying franchise agreement once it is executed or if the development agreement is terminated.
Financial Statement Impact of Transition to ASC 606
Revenue recognized during fiscal year 2018 under ASC 606 and revenue that would have been recognized during fiscal year 2018 had ASC 605 been applied is as follows:
Opening and closing balances of contract liabilities and receivables from contracts with customers are as follows:
The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method. As of the acquisition date, the acquirer recognizes, separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the cost of acquisition over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of the consideration transferred, measured at acquisition date fair value and the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. If the cost of acquisition is lower than the fair value of the net identifiable assets, the difference is recognized in profit. Acquisition costs are expensed as incurred.
Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, and purchased intangible assets subject to depreciation and amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Some of the events or changes in circumstances that would trigger an impairment test include, but are not limited to:
If circumstances require a long-lived asset or asset group be tested for possible impairment, the Company first compares undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by that asset or asset group to its carrying value. If the carrying value of the long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment is recognized to the extent that the carrying value exceeds its fair value. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques, including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary.
RESTAURANT PRE-OPENING and closing EXPENSES
Restaurant pre-opening and closing expenses are non-capital expenditures and are expensed as incurred. Restaurant pre-opening expenses consist of the costs of hiring and training the initial hourly work force for each new restaurant, travel, the cost of food and supplies used in training, grand opening promotional costs, the cost of the initial stocking of operating supplies and other direct costs related to the opening of a restaurant, including rent during the construction and in-restaurant training period. Restaurant closing expenses consists of the costs related to the closing of a restaurant location and include write-off of property and equipment, lease termination costs and other costs directly related to the closure. Pre-opening and closing expenses are expensed as incurred.
The costs of obtaining non-transferable liquor licenses that are directly issued by local government agencies for nominal fees are expensed as incurred. Annual liquor license renewal fees are expensed over the renewal term.
ACCOUNTS AND OTHER RECEIVABLES
The Company monitors its exposure for credit losses on its receivable balances and the credit worthiness of its receivables on an ongoing basis and records related allowances for doubtful accounts. Allowances are estimated based upon specific customer and other balances, where a risk of default has been identified, and also include a provision for non-customer specific defaults based upon historical experience. The majority of the Company’s accounts are from customer credit card transactions with minimal historical credit risk. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company has not recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts. If circumstances related to specific customers change, estimates of the recoverability of receivables could also change.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value, and consist primarily of restaurant food items, supplies, beverages and merchandise.
The Company leases certain property under operating leases. The Company also finances certain property using capital leases, with the asset and obligation recorded at an amount equal to the present value of the minimum lease payments during the lease term.
Many of these lease agreements contain rent holidays, rent escalation clauses and/or contingent rent provisions. Rent expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term, including cancelable option periods when failure to exercise such options would result in an economic penalty. The Company also may receive tenant improvement allowances in connection with its leases, which are capitalized as leasehold improvements with a corresponding liability recorded in the deferred rent liability line in the consolidated balance sheet. The tenant improvement allowance liability is amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The rent commencement date of the lease term is the earlier of the date when the Company becomes legally obligated for the rent payments or the date when the Company takes access to the property or the grounds for build out. Certain leases contain percentage rent provisions where additional rent may become due if the location exceeds certain sales thresholds. The Company recognizes expense related to percentage rent obligations at such time as it becomes probable that the percent rent threshold will be met.
fair value of financial instruments
The Company is required to disclose fair value information about financial instruments when it is practicable to estimate that value. The carrying amounts of the Company’s cash, accounts receivable, other receivables, accounts payable, accrued expenses, other current liabilities, convertible notes payable and notes payable approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these financial instruments and/or because related interest rates offered to the Company approximate current rates.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation and amortization, which includes amortization of assets held under capital leases, are recorded generally using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets or, if shorter, the term of the lease for certain assets held under a capital lease. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the expected lease term, or the estimated useful lives of the related assets using the straight-line method. Maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the useful lives of the assets are not considered assets and are charged to expense when incurred.
The estimated useful lives used to compute depreciation and amortization are as follows:
Goodwill, which is not subject to amortization, is evaluated for impairment annually as of the end of the Company’s year-end, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change, such as material deterioration in performance or a significant number of store closures, that would indicate an impairment may exist. Goodwill is tested for impairment at a level of reporting referred to as a reporting unit. The Company’s reporting units are consistent with its operating segments.
When evaluating goodwill for impairment, the Company may first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit is impaired. If we do not perform a qualitative assessment, or if we determine that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, we perform a quantitative assessment and calculate the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to reduce the carrying value to the estimated fair value. The Company’s decision to perform a qualitative impairment assessment in a given year is influenced by a number of factors, including the significance of the excess of the reporting unit’s estimated fair value over carrying value at the last quantitative assessment date, the amount of time in between quantitative fair value assessments, and the price of our common stock.
As discussed in Note 6, the Company did record an impairment charge to its goodwill balance during 2018. The Company performed a quantitative assessment and determined that no additional impairment of goodwill was necessary as of December 31, 2018. Step one of the impairment test is based upon a comparison of the carrying value of net assets, including goodwill balances, to the fair value of net assets. Fair value is measured using a discounted cash flow model approach and a market approach. The Company evaluates all methods to ensure reasonably consistent results. Additionally, the Company evaluates the key input factors in the models used to determine whether a moderate change in any input factor or combination of factors would significantly change the results of the tests.
However, management noted that the margin between the estimated fair value and carrying value was relatively narrow for its reporting units for 2018 and that the impairment assessment in future periods would be sensitive to changes in estimates of cash flow, discount rates and other assumptions increasing the risk that an impairment could be triggered in future periods. The Company is also considering various strategies to improve cash flow and reduce long term debt, which could include selling certain of its operating assets, as well as possibly closing certain underperforming store locations to improve operating cash flow.
Those strategic evaluations are ongoing, no decisions have been made, and management can provide no assurance that the Company will proceed with any asset sales, or that such asset sale can be completed on favorable terms, or at all. In the event that management does elect to proceed with asset sales and/or effect store closures in the future rather than continue to hold and operate all its assets long term, management’s assessment of the fair value, and ultimate recoverability, of goodwill, intangibles, property and equipment and other assets would be impacted and the Company could incur significant noncash impairment charges and cash exit costs in future periods.
The fair value of trade name/trademarks are estimated and compared to the carrying value. The Company estimates the fair value of trademarks using the relief-from-royalty method, which requires assumptions related to projected sales from its annual long-range plan; assumed royalty rates that could be payable if the Company did not own the trademarks; and a discount rate. Certain of the Company’s trade name/trademarks have been determined to have a definite life and are being amortized on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives of 10 years. The amortization expense of these definite-lived intangibles is included in depreciation and amortization in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. Certain of the Company’s trade name/trademarks have been classified as indefinite-lived intangible assets and are not amortized, but instead are reviewed for impairment at least annually or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist.
Intangible assets are recorded for the initial franchise fees for our Hooter’s restaurants. The Company amortizes these amounts over a 20-year period, which is the life of the franchise agreement. The Company also has intangible assets representing the acquisition date fair value of customer contracts acquired in connection with BGR’s franchise business. The Company previously determined this intangible asset to be indefinite lived based on the Company’s expectations of franchisee renewals. During 2017, management reevaluated the expected life of the BGR franchise intangible and determined that the asset was impaired, resulting in an impairment charge of $264 thousand. Management also revised its estimated useful life of the related intangible asset and began amortizing the related asset over the weighted average life of the underlying franchise agreements.
Deferred income taxes are provided on the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax basis. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment. The Company has provided a valuation allowance for the full amount of the deferred tax assets.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no accrued interest or penalties relating to any income tax obligations. The Company currently has no federal or state examinations in progress, nor has it had any federal or state tax examinations since its inception. The last three years of the Company’s tax years are subject to federal and state tax examination.
The compensation cost relating to share-based payment transactions (including the cost of all employee stock options) is required to be recognized in the financial statements. That cost is measured based on the estimated fair value of the equity or liability instruments issued. A wide range of share-based compensation arrangements including share options, restricted share plans, performance-based awards, share appreciation rights and employee share purchase plans are included.
LOSS PER COMMON SHARE
The Company is required to report both basic earnings per share, which is based on the weighted-average number of shares outstanding, and diluted earnings per share, which is based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus all diluted shares outstanding.
The following table summarizes the number of common shares potentially issuable upon the exercise of certain warrants, convertible notes payable and convertible interest as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, which have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per common share since the effect would be antidilutive.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expenses which are included in restaurant operating expenses and general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations, totaled $0.4 million and $0.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
AMORTIZATION OF DEBT DISCOUNT
The Company has issued various debt instruments with warrants and conversion features for which total proceeds were allocated to individual instruments based on the relative fair value of each instrument at the time of issuance. The relative fair value of the warrants and conversion was recorded as discount on debt and amortized over the term of the respective debt. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, amortization of debt discount was $1.2 million and $0.8 million, respectively.
FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION
Assets and liabilities denominated in local currency are translated to U.S. dollars using the exchange rates as in effect at the balance sheet date. Results of operations are translated using average exchange rates prevailing throughout the period. Adjustments resulting from the process of translating foreign currency financial statements from functional currency into U.S. dollars are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in current earnings. The Company has determined that local currency is the functional currency for each of its foreign operations.
Comprehensive Income (LOSS)
Standards for reporting and displaying comprehensive income (loss) and its components (revenues, expenses, gains and losses) in a full set of general-purpose financial statements requires that all items that are required to be recognized under accounting standards as components of comprehensive income (loss) be reported in a financial statement that is displayed with the same prominence as other financial statements. We are required to (a) classify items of other comprehensive income (loss) by their nature in financial statements, and (b) display the accumulated balance of other comprehensive income (loss) separately in the equity section of the balance sheet for all periods presented. Other comprehensive income (loss) items include foreign currency translation adjustments, and the unrealized gains and losses on our marketable securities classified as held for sale.
concentration of credit risk
The Company maintains its cash with major financial institutions. Cash held in U.S. bank institutions is currently insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to $250,000 at each institution. No similar insurance or guarantee exists for cash held in South Africa or the United Kingdom bank accounts. There was approximately $97,000 and $202,000 in aggregate uninsured cash balances at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Certain reclassifications have been made in the financial statements at December 31, 2017 and for the period then ended to conform to the current year presentation. The reclassifications had no effect on consolidated net loss.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and created Topic 606 (ASC 606), requiring an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. ASC 606 replaced most existing revenue recognition guidance in GAAP and is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017.
The core principle of the standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. The new standard also requires significantly more comprehensive disclosures than the existing standard. Guidance subsequent to ASU 2014-09 has been issued to clarify various provisions in the standard, including principal versus agent considerations, identifying performance obligations, licensing transactions, as well as various technical corrections and improvements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, that amends the guidance on the classification and measurement of financial instruments (Subtopic 825-10). ASU 2016-01 becomes effective in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods therein. ASU 2016-01 removes equity securities from the scope of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 320 and creates ASC Topic 321, Investments – Equity Securities. Under the new guidance, all equity securities with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value on the statement of financial position, with changes in fair value recorded through earnings. The update eliminates the option to record changes in the fair value of equity securities through other comprehensive income. Transitional guidance provided that entities with unrealized gains or losses on available for sale (“AFS”) equity securities were required to reclassify those amounts to beginning retained earnings in the year of adoption. The Company adopted the guidance within ASU 2016-01 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. ASU 2016-15 clarifies how cash receipts and cash payments in certain transactions are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The effective date of this update is for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The update requires retrospective application to all periods presented but may be applied prospectively if retrospective application is impracticable. The Company adopted the guidance within ASU 2016-15 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash. ASU 2016-18 requires that the statement of cash flows explain the changes in the combined total of restricted and unrestricted cash balance. Amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents will be combined with unrestricted cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning and end of period balances on the statement of cash flows. Further, the ASU requires a reconciliation of balances from the statement of cash flows to the balance sheet in situations in which the balance sheet includes more than one-line item of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash. Companies will also be disclosing the nature of the restrictions. ASU 2016-18 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted the guidance within ASU 2016-18 as of January 1, 2018. The impact of ASU 2016-18 on its financial statements was as follows: (1) changes in restricted cash balances are no longer shown in the statements of cash flows as previously presented in investing activities, as these balances are now included in the beginning and ending cash balances in the statements of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business (Topic 805). This ASU clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The guidance is effective for fiscal years that begin after December 15, 2017 and is to be applied prospectively. The Company adopted the guidance within ASU 2017-01 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which provides guidance on determining which changes to the terms and conditions of share-based payment awards require an entity to apply modification accounting. This update is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years. The Company adopted the guidance within ASU 2017-01 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new standard provides that a lessee should recognize the assets and the liabilities that arise from leases, including operating leases. Under the new requirements, a lessee will recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and the right-of-use asset representing the right to the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of twelve months or less, the lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. The recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee have not significantly changed from the previous GAAP. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within such fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. The ASU requires a modified retrospective transition method with the option to elect a package of practical expedients.
The Company will adopt the standard on January 1, 2019, electing the optional transition method to apply the standard as of the transition date. As a result, the Company will not apply the standard to the comparative periods presented.
The Company has elected the transition package of three practical expedients permitted under the new standard, which among other things, allows us to carryforward our historical lease classifications. The Company also made certain accounting policy elections for new leases post-transition, including the election to combine components.
The adoption will have a significant impact to our consolidated balance sheet given the extent of the Company’s real estate lease portfolio. The Company will derecognize all landlord funded assets, deemed financing liabilities and deferred rent liabilities upon transition. The Company will record a right-of-use asset and lease liability for those leases as well as all other existing leases, the majority of which are real estate operating leases. The Company expects the adoption to result in a net increase of between $16 million to $17 million in lease assets and lease liabilities. The difference between the additional lease assets and lease liabilities, net of tax, will be recorded as an adjustment through equity. We are substantially complete with our implementation efforts.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This standard significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income, including trade receivables. The standard requires an entity to estimate its lifetime “expected credit loss” for such assets at inception, and record an allowance that, when deducted from the amortized cost basis of the financial asset, presents the net amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. For public business entities that are SEC filers, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the standard on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This ASU simplifies how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step Two from the goodwill impairment test. Step Two measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Under this standard, an entity will recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value. The standard is effective for any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and is to be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company early adopted as of December 31, 2018 in its annual goodwill impairment test.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef